By L. Vibald. Mount Mercy College.
Signs and symptoms of deficiency Scurvy (bleeding gums buy zofran 8 mg overnight delivery, dry skin discount zofran 4 mg line, dry mouth, impaired wound healing). Note: Substantial vitamin C can be lost during food processing, preservation and preparation. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Rickets – a disease of bones in infants and children Osteomalacia in adults 375 | P a g e Prevention Exposure of the skin to sunshine (vitamin D is produced by the action of the sun on the skin) Vitamin D rich foods: wheat germ, fish, liver, egg yolk, organ meats, cheese, milk (breast milk other milks), butter, margarine, mayonnaise. It plays role in reproductive health (enhances fertility) and also in haemoglobin synthesis. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Leg cramps, Muscle weakness, Nerve problems and Hearing problems. Dietary measures Consumption of vegetable oils Whole grain cereals Drug treatment Adult C: Alpha tocopherol acetate 50 - 100mg daily until recovery Below 1 yr: 50mg until recovery 14. Secondary deficiency may be associated with malabsorption syndrome, liver cirrhosis and the use of Coumarin derivatives such as dicumarol, warfarin and other analogues. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Slow growth Loss of smell and taste Loss of appetite Diarrhoea Poor wound healing Skin lesions Dietary measures Zinc is present in most foods of animal and plant origins. Also phytates found in whole grain products and vegetables reduces the bioavailability of zinc. Treatment A: Zinc tablets 50mg 2 to 3 times daily until recovery Zinc supplementation- Refer to National Guideline Micronutrient supplementation 16. Kwashiorkor children have shown improved weight gain with selenium supplementation. In China selenium deficiency has led to “Kesharis disease” – a serious condition affecting heart muscle. Meats, seafoods, egg yolk and milk are good sources of selenium In cereals, selenium content depends on the concentration of the mineral in the soil Mushrooms and asparagus are rich sources. But highest concentrations are in the liver, brain, heart, kidneys and in the blood. Copper in the form of ceruloplesmin (a copper-protein complex in the blood plasma) is involved in various stages of iron nutrition. Copper enhances iron absorption and stimulates mobilization of iron from stores (in the liver and other tissues). Plays part in the conversion of ferrous iron to ferric (important during various stages of iron metabolism). Copper deficiency has been linked to anaemia in premature infants and in people with severe protein- energy malnutrition. Menke’s disease (a rare congenital condition) is caused by failure of copper absorption. Dietary measures Foods richest in copper are nuts, shellfish, liver, kidney, raisins and legumes. Many of the physiological functions of Mg are based on the mineral’s ability to interact with calcium, phosphate and carbonate salts. Magnesium catalyses many essential enzymatic reactions (glucose, fatty acid, amino acid metabolism), takes part in bone metabolism and protein synthesis. Signs and symptoms of deficiency Muscle spasms, cramps Tremors, seizures, coma Dietary measures Most foods contain adequate amounts of magnesium Animal foods: good source is dairy products, meats and poultry Vegetables: green vegetables (okra, broccoli), cucumber skin Fruits: especially avocado Cereals (whole grain) Legumes Seafood Drug treatment D: Magnesium sulphate 0. Fluorine enhances iron absorption (protects against anaemia) and enhances wound healing. Chronic ingestion of high concentrations (from natural high content in the area or environmental pollution) can lead to bone and tooth malformations. Drug treatment: In areas where drinking water is fluoridated and the floride content is above 0. S: Fluorine tabs: Under 6 yrs 250 micrograms daily Over 6 years : 500 micrograms to 1mg daily 22. Deficiencies occur across all population groups but women and children are highly vulnerable because of rapid growth and inadequate dietary practices. Interventions to address micronutrient deficiencies include food based approaches whereby production and consumption of micronutrients rich foods are promoted. Micronutrient supplementation programs target most vulnerable groups such as pregnant and lactating women, and children aged below 5 years. Food fortification with micronutrients is another approach aimed to deliver micronutrients to the general population, most vulnerable groups included. Food fortification includes iodization of edible salt and fortification of staple foods such as cereal flours and cooking oil.
Warnings: In clinical trials 20‐50% of human patients treated with Brevibloc have experienced hypotension cheap zofran 8 mg without prescription, generally defined as systolic pressure less than 90 mmHg (in monkeys this is about 80 mmHg) and/or diastolic pressure less than 50 mmHg buy zofran 8mg low cost. Do not leave your monkey in the recovery room alone or do not get involved in activities that are guaranteed to interfere with your attending the animal. If the animal is anesthetized and the drug is being infused, termination of the infusion reverses the effects of Brevibloc within 30 minutes. Keep in mind that continued depression of the myocardium with beta blocking agents over a period of time can, in some cases, lead to cardiac failure. Usage: Use this drug with great caution in the following cases: (a) Tachycardia during tracheal intubation. If tachycardia persist despite appropriate anesthesia, and despite the absence of any painful surgical manipulation, then administer Brevibloc (0. This dosage form is a concentrated, potent drug which must be diluted prior to its infusion. Brevibloc should not be mixed with other drugs prior to dilution in a suitable intravenous fluid. Brevibloc injection was found to be compatible with the following solutions and was stable for at least 24 hours at controlled room temperature or under refrigeration: 1. Antiemetics Inapsine (Droperidol) Description: Inapsine (droperidol) is a neuroleptic (tranquilizer) agent available in ampoules and vials. Droperidol is chemically identified as 1‐(1‐(3‐(p‐fluorobenzoyl) propyl)‐ 1,2,3,6‐tetrahydro‐ 4‐pyridyl)‐2‐benzimidazolinone with a molecular weight of 379. Inapsine is a sterile, non‐pyrogenic aqueous solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection. It allays apprehension and provides a state of mental detachment and indifference while maintaining a state of reflex alertness. Inapsine produces an antiemetic effect as evidenced by the antagonism of apomorphine in dogs. It lowers the incidence of nausea and vomiting during surgical procedures and provides antiemetic protection in the postoperative period. It produces mild alpha‐adrenergic blockade, peripheral vascular dilatation and reduction of the pressor effect of epinephrine. It can produce hypotension and decreased peripheral vascular resistance and may decrease pulmonary arterial pressure (particularly if it is abnormally high). It may reduce the incidence of epinephrine‐ induced arrhythmias, but it does not prevent other cardiac arrhythmias. The onset of action of single intramuscular and intravenous doses is from three to ten minutes following administration, although the peak effect may not be apparent for up to thirty minutes. The duration of the tranquilizing and sedative effects generally is two to four hours, although alteration of alertness may persist for as long as twelve hours. Usage: Inapsine (droperidol) is indicated: to produce tranquilization and to reduce the incidence of nausea and vomiting in surgical and diagnostic procedures. For premedication, induction, and as an adjunct in the maintenance of general and regional anesthesia. Some of the factors to be considered in determining the dose are age, body weight, physical status, underlying pathological condition, use of other drugs, type of anesthesia to be used and the surgical procedure involved. Promethazine Prevention and control of vomiting, as an adjunct to analgesics for the control of postoperative pain. It is contraindicated following administration of large doses of barbiturates or narcotics. Respiratory Stimulants DopramV Description: Dopram is a brand name of Doxapram Hydrochloride. Doxapram stimulates primarily respiration by an effect on the brain stem, since sectioning of reflex pathways do not abolish its action. The detection of increased electrical activity in both the inspiratory and expiratory centers of the medulla, at doses as low as 0.
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