By N. Jerek. Barry University.
Experimental tests of the question are feasible 100 mcg levothroid otc, but would require camouflage of the institutional responsibilities of the investigators levothroid 50 mcg with amex. The author would postulate that only in rare interrogation subjects would a sufficiently deep trance be obtainable to even attempt to induce the subject to discuss material which he is unwilling to discuss in the waking state. The kind of information which can be obtained in those rare instances is still an unanswered question. Recall and Accuracy of Information Obtained in Hypnosis Despite the previously discussed technical problems, it may be possible for an interrogator to obtain information from a hypnotized subject. In either case the interrogator must evaluate the veridicality of the elicited material. A great deal has been written, especially in the press, about the unfailing accuracy with which subjects in hypnosis will recall past events. Statements have frequently been made about individuals -191- having perfect memory in hypnosis, about their ability to recall anything that has happened to them even while infants, and, according to some, even prior to birth (37). Two separate issues have to be examined: (a) is the subject in hypnosis able to recall historically accurate information which he cannot remember in the waking state and (b) is information obtained from a subject in hypnosis necessarily accurate when it has been suggested to him that he cannot lie? A mechanism frequently used to facilitate recall is that of hypnotic age regression. The subject is "regressed" or taken back in time to the situations toward which recall is directed. For example, if a subject in deep hypnosis is given the suggestion that he is, let us say, six years old, he will begin to act, talk, and to some extent think in the manner of a six year old. It is often assumed that the information obtained under these circumstances is accurate. Platonov and Prikhodivny (57) published two studies which claim to prove the reality of age regression by means of intelligence tests. One of the most striking studies is by Gidro-Frank and BowersBuch (25), who demonstrated that the infantile type of plantar response appeared in subjects who were regressed in age to approximately five months. Unfortunately they did not investigate whether the subjects were aware of the type of plantar response to be expected in infancy. The subject population included medical students and nurses, and it is reasonable to assume that they were not entirely naive. Single case studies which claim to demonstrate "real" age regression have been reported by a variety of investigators: Spiegel, Shor and Fishman (69), Schneck (66), Mercer and Gibson (47), LeCron (41), Bergman, Graham, and Leavitt (8), and Kline (36). Despite these studies, which are based mostly on single cases, there is little evidence for the validity of hypnotic age regression. Young (85) in a study using a number of subjects has demonstrated that their performance on intelligence tests was not appropriate to their suggested age. Unhypnotized control subjects were more suc- -192- cessful in simulating their age than were subjects in deep hypnosis. There was no correlation between the apparent depth of hypnosis and the extent of regression. Orne (51) conducted a study of hypnotic age regression in ten subjects employing the Rorschach test and drawing samples, and was able to demonstrate that, while some regressive elements appeared, it was clear that nonregressive elements were also present. Furthermore, the changes toward regression did not show any consistency from subject to subject. The drawing samples in age regression were evaluated by Karen Machover who characterized them as "sophisticated oversimplification. For one subject his drawings at age six were available, but there was not even a superficial resemblance. To summarize, the literature on hypnotic age regression fails to demonstrate that the phenomenon is anything more than an extremely convincing form of role-playing, as suggested by Sarbin (61), Young (85), and Orne (51). There is little evidence in any of these studies to indicate that recall for nonernotional material is significantly improved. It is important for our purposes to distinguish between emotionally neutral material and emotionally charged events, which are subject to active forgetting or repression. There is abundant evidence that emotionally laden material that is not normally accessible can be recovered by hypnosis. Probably it is this phenomenon which has led to the erroneous assumption that all types of material may be recalled in this fashion. Two specific studies deal with memory in hypnosis: Stalnaker and Riddle (70) asked subjects in hypnosis to recall the poem "The Village Blacksmith.
The juice may prepared from unconcentrated cheap levothroid 100mcg, undi- have been concentrated and later re- luted liquid extracted from mature constituted discount 50mcg levothroid otc. When prepared from con- lemons; or (2) if the food is prepared centrated lemon juice, the finished from unconcentrated, undiluted liquid food contains not less than 6 percent, extracted from mature lemons to by weight, of soluble solids taken as which concentrated lemon juice is the refractometric sucrose value (of added to adjust acidity as provided for the filtrate), corrected to 20 °C, but un- in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. The words "from con- which is incorporated by reference, and centrate" or "reconstituted" shall be has a titratable acidity content of not shown in letters not less than one-half less than 4. The food may con- general method for fill of container tain one or any combination of the safe prescribed in §130. When sealed in a (2) Compliance is determined as spec- container to be held at ambient tem- ified in §146. The optional ment of substandard fill specified in safe and suitable ingredients referred §130. The lemon ysis of the Association of Official Ana- juice ingredients may be treated by lytical Chemists," 13th Ed. It For the purposes of this section, lemon may contain one or more safe and suit- juice is the undiluted juice expressed able dispersing ingredients serving the from mature lemons of an acid variety; function of distributing the lemon oil and concentrated lemon juice is lemon throughout the food. It may also con- juice from which part of the water has tain one or more safe and suitable been removed. Each of the in- lished pursuant to section 409 of the gredients used in the food shall be de- act. Grape- (d) If an optional thickening or dis- fruit juice is the unfermented juice, in- persing ingredient referred to in para- tended for direct consumption, ob- graph (a) of this section is used, the tained by mechanical process from label shall bear the statement "lll sound, mature grapefruit (Citrus added" or "with added lll", the paradisi Macfadyen) from which seeds blank being filled in with the common and peel (except embryonic seeds and name of the thickening or dispersing small fragments of seeds and peel agent used. Such statement shall be set which cannot be separated by good forth on the label with such promi- manufacturing practice) and excess nence and conspicuousness as to render pulp are removed and to which may be it likely to be read and understood by added not more than 10 percent by vol- the ordinary individual under cus- ume of the unfermented juice obtained tomary conditions of purchase. The (e) Frozen concentrate for artificially juice may be adjusted by the addition sweetened lemonade is labeled to con- of the optional concentrated grapefruit form to the labeling requirements pre- juice ingredients specified in paragraph scribed for foods which purport to be or (a)(2) of this section, but the quantity are represented for special dietary use of such concentrated grapefruit juice by regulations promulgated pursuant ingredient added shall not contribute to section 403(j) of the act. If the and standard of identity prescribed for grapefruit juice is prepared from con- frozen concentrate for lemonade by centrate, such sweeteners, in liquid §146. When juice, or any such juice in concentrated prepared from concentrated grapefruit form, or with any other color additive juice, exclusive of added sweeteners, ingredient suitable for use in food, in- the finished food contains not less than cluding artificial coloring, used in con- 10 percent, by weight, of soluble solids formity with regulations established taken as the refractometric sucrose pursuant to section 721 of the Federal value (of the filtrate), corrected to 20 Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. I (4–1–10 Edition) obtained sucrose value by the first water and/or grapefruit juice; or (2) if method prescribed in "Correction of the food is prepared from grapefuit Refractometer Sucrose Readings for juice from concentrate and grapefruit Citric Acid Content for Lemonade," by juice. The words "from concentrate" Yeatman, Senzel, and Springer, "Jour- shall be shown in letters not less than nal of the Association of Official Ana- one-half the height of the letters in the lytical Chemists," vol. Each of the in- codeloflfederallregulations/ gredients used in the food shall be de- ibrllocations. The food may con- clared on the label as required by the tain one or any combination of the op- applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 tional ingredients specified in para- of this chapter. Grapefruit (b) [Reserved] juice, as defined in this paragraph, may (c) Fill of container. When except when the food is frozen, is not sealed in a container to be held at am- less than 90 percent of the total capac- bient temperatures, it is so processed ity of the container as determined by by heat, before or after sealing, as to the general method for fill of container prevent spoilage. The optional (2) Compliance is determined as spec- ingredients referred to in paragraph ified in §146. Seeds added to adjust soluble solids as pro- (except embryonic seeds and small vided for in paragraph (a)(1) of this sec- fragments of seeds that cannot be sepa- tion. The name "orange juice" may ther before or after such heat treat- be preceded on the label by the varietal ment, all or a part of the product may name of the oranges used, and if the or- be frozen. The finished pasteurized or- anges grew in a single State, the name ange juice contains not less than 10. If the food is reticulata or Citrus reticulata hybrids filled into containers and preserved by (except that this limitation shall not freezing, the label shall bear the name apply to the hybrid species described in "Frozen pasteurized orange juice". Seeds (except embryonic words "pasteurized" or "frozen pas- seeds and small fragments of seeds that teurized" shall be shown on labels in cannot be separated by good manufac- letters not less than one-half the turing practice) are removed, and pulp and orange oil may be adjusted in ac- height of the letters in the words "or- cordance with good manufacturing ange juice". If the adjustment involves the (2) If the pasteurized orange juice is addition of pulp, then such pulp shall filled into containers and refrigerated, not be of the washed or spent type. The the label shall bear the name of the solids may be adjusted by the addition food, "chilled pasteurized orange of one or more of the optional con- juice". If it does not purport to be ei- centrated orange juice ingredients ther canned orange juice or frozen pas- specified in paragraph (b) of this sec- teurized orange juice, the word tion. One or more of the optional "chilled" may be omitted from the sweetening ingredients listed in para- name.
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