By Y. Milten. Antioch University Yellow Springs OH. 2018.
See Chapter 7 ‘Writing As an Aid to Learning’ for more information on how to search for information cheap danazol 100 mg with amex. The introduction All essays need some form of introduction to set the scene for the reader cheap danazol 200mg free shipping. It will briefly state: ° what you are about to tell the reader ° why you are going to tell this to the reader ° how you will tell it. In other words, the introduction lets your reader know the (a) content, (b) rationale and (c) structure of your essay. They will then have a framework that will help them to organise and make sense of the information as they read through the rest of the essay. By being able to select the important details, you will also show the examiner that you have understood the question. Some topics may necessitate a brief overview of the background or history of the subject in order to place your discussion in context. Remem ber to keep this to a short summary that contains only the essential points, otherwise you may get sidetracked into giving an overlong account of something that is minor to your overall argument. This will result in an ESSAYS 175 unbalanced account and may mean you are unable to cover the relevant material in enough detail. This will help set the tone of your essay by indicating that you have thoroughly researched your topic. However, do not be tempted to write a paragraph that merely contains a series of quotes. The examiner will want to read your thoughts and opin ions on the subject. For instance, you may need to describe x in order to understand how y relates to z. They will then understand when you start with a de scription of x before discussing the relationship between y and z. The introduction forms approximately 12 per cent of your essay – so in a 2000 word composition you would plan to have an introduction of about 250 words. Pitfalls to avoid: ° Writing an overlong introduction so that the essay becomes unbalanced. This is very boring for the marker and not the best way to impress him or her! The main section The main or middle part will come after your introduction and will form the bulk of your essay. It is here that you will demonstrate to the marker your knowledge and understanding of the subject matter. Structure There are different ways to organise the information in your essay. Your choice of structure will depend on the subject matter and the requirements given in the title. Here are some examples: (a) ‘Illustrate what is meant by the “use and protection” of information within the NHS. The main criterion is that you cluster information to help the reader make connections between ideas. The sequence in which you present these clusters must be logical and coherent. Content Use your analysis of the title and your outline to help you judge whether your choice of material is relevant to the question. Think about whether it is a primary point, secondary point or supporting evidence, such as an ex ample or reference to another source. If you can omit some data without 178 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE making a difference to your overall argument or discussion then it is likely that it is redundant. Constantly check back with your original plan to make sure you re main true to the question. For example, has your answer changed from ‘why does x cause z’ to ‘what causes z’? Your tutor will be looking for an expression of your point of view; however, you must support this with evidence from the literature. You will then be able to discuss a range of theories and refer to information from a num ber of sources.
The victims began showing up in emer- gency rooms with eye inﬂammation and respiratory illness order danazol 100 mg amex, which in eighty- three cases resulted in death danazol 200mg online. Airplanes and cruise ships pump recir- culated air, which may be harboring microscopic monsters, to their passengers. Natalie Angier writes in the New York Times Magazine, “Today diseases as common as the cold and as rare as Ebola are circling the globe with near telephonic speed. Microbes travel by land, sea, air, nose, glove, love, sewage, steerage, rat backs, hat racks, uncooked burritos, overlooked mosquitoes. Nowadays, a mosquito infested with the malaria parasite [or West Nile virus] can be buzzing in Ghana at dawn and dining on an airport employee in Boston at cocktail hour. But there is no standard way to exchange up- to-the-minute information with researchers in other countries in spite of the existence of such organizations as the World Health Organization. As yet, no central symptom-based database exists in this country or in the world, though many experts are working to correct this deﬁciency. Local governments are even being encouraged to harness computers for the task of identifying and tracking disease outbreaks (as reported in the The Diagnosis Dilemma 15 June 2003 issue of Governing, a magazine designed for states and localities). Clearly, though, we are still only in the infancy stages of gathering and exchanging data. It is easy to see how many diseases simply have not yet been identiﬁed and can be diagnostic mysteries. The Immeasurable Effects of the Environment The increase in mystery ailments may be related to factors we encounter in the environment, ranging from chemicals to microorganisms whose growth may be stimulated by changing climatic conditions. For instance, toxic mold can cause serious illnesses that not all doctors know how to recognize. They might expect to ﬁnd such diseases in those who live in substandard hous- ing but fail to ask pertinent questions of their well-heeled patients. There are many unanswered questions about environment-related dis- eases and many aspects that must be researched, and without clear cause- and-effect statistics, physicians may be reluctant to link mysterious symptoms to such exposures. Even so, it is now estimated that forty million people have some form of environmental illness due to allergic or toxic reac- tions to hundreds of thousands of chemicals contained in our air, food, water, homes, workplaces, and schools. But until more studies are con- ducted, it is diagnostic guesswork at best. Kathy, a hard-working executive secretary, had a complex of symptoms that started insidiously with ﬂulike signs—chills, joint pain, and breathing difﬁculties—which ultimately landed her in the hospital emergency room gasping for breath. But no one could diagnose her condition until she found one smart doctor who was willing to look beyond the usual. He found that Kathy was suffering from a malady known as hypersensitivity pneumoni- tis—also known as farmer’s lung or cheese lung—and more recently iden- tiﬁed as a form of “sick building syndrome. It is also found in hay stored in barns and in the fermentation process at cheese factories. For those who are sensitive to this type of mold, prolonged exposure to it can cause ﬁbrosis of (a buildup of tissue in) the lungs. Closely associated with sick building syndrome and other syndromes resulting from exposure to toxic mold is a controversial illness known as 16 Becoming Your Own Medical Detective “multiple chemical sensitivity. For an esti- mated 20–30 percent of the population (some thirty-seven million Ameri- cans), the symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity can range from mild headaches, dizziness, short-term memory loss, nosebleeds, irritability, itchy eyes, and scratchy throats to possible damage to the nervous and respiratory systems. In its most extreme form, sufferers are conﬁned to a plastic bubble world or one made up of only natural materials. A different set of illnesses of an environmental nature appear to be a by-product of disturbance of ecosystems. This would include, for example, occurrences of Lyme disease in suburbia. Given that Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, has been around a long time, why are peo- ple suddenly being diagnosed with it? In open woodlands, foxes and bob- cats keep a lid on the bacteria by hunting the mice that carry it, but when these predators vanish with our woodlands as developers clear lots for new subdivisions, the mice and their ticks proliferate unnaturally. Richard Oster- ﬁeld, an animal ecologist at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, found in a recent survey that infected ticks were seven times as prevalent on one- and two-acre lots as they were on the ﬁfteen-acre lots of yesteryear. The intriguing case study of a little boy who contracted Lyme disease while on a Boy Scout outing is described in Chapter 13.
Transactions of the Clinical Society of London 27:167 loskeletal system buy danazol 200mg low price. Lane WA (1908) The Modern Treatment of Cleft Anders Langenskiöld was the medical director Palate discount 200mg danazol free shipping. Lane Sir WA (1914) The Operative Treatment of the Invalid Foundation in Helsinki from 1956 to Fractures, 2nd end. London, Bailliere, Tindall and Cox experimental scoliosis, reconstructive surgery in poliomyelitis, coxa plana and coxa vara infantum, He died on July 8, 2000 at the age of 84 years. In 1968, he became professor of orthopedics and traumatology at the University of Helsinki, and was the head of the Department of Orthope- dics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, from 1969 to 1979, and simul- taneously a consulting surgeon at the Orthopedic Hospital of the Invalid Foundation. This was a very busy time in his life because of teaching activities, research work, invited lectureships all over the world, and many national and inter- national activities associated with orthopedic surgery and traumatology. He became an hon- orary member of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, of the Scandinavian Ortho- pedic Association, of the Scandinavian Society for Rehabilitation, and an Honorary Fellow of the British Orthopedic Association and of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. The main subjects of his research have been Anders LANGENSKIÖLD pediatric orthopedics and normal and pathologic 1916–2000 bone growth. Internationally, he is well known for his ﬁnding that partial closure of a growth plate Anders Langenskiöld, son of the famous ortho- can be eliminated by bone bridge resection and pedic surgeon Fabian Langenskiöld, was born in implantation of an interposition material, and for Helsinki, Finland, in 1916, and graduated with his studies on tibia vara. In 1941, Langenskiöld wrote genskiöld has played an important role in the his doctoral thesis on electrophysiology under development of orthopedic surgery and trauma- the guidance of the Nobel Prize winner Ragnar tology in Finland, and today most orthopedic Granit. Studies of histopathology in Switzerland centers in this country are headed by his disciples. Thus, the knowledge and experience of the Many years of cooperation with the famous bone Langenskiöld school have spread all over the 187 Who’s Who in Orthopedics country for the beneﬁt of patients in need of Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio, and his orthopedic orthopedic surgical treatment. He entered private practice in Washington, DC in 1923, and became one of the outstanding surgeons of the community and soon earned a well-deserved national and international reputation. Many contributions were the result of his work, the most notable of which was his untiring interest in fractures of the neck of the femur. He was clinical professor of surgery at the George Washington Medical School, chief of the orthopedic service of the Emergency Hos- pital, and consultant to the Children’s Hospital and the Casualty Hospital. His sterling qualiﬁcations were recognized early and he was elected a member of the American Orthopedic Association in 1930 and of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons in 1934. He also served as chairman of the bone and joint section of the Southern Medical Association. He served on the Military Com- mittee of the American Orthopedic Association Guy Whitman LEADBETTER and the American Academy of Orthopedic Sur- 1893–1945 geons for many years and gave unstintingly of his time to the Ofﬁce of the Surgeon General. He was Born in Bangor, Maine, December 12, 1893, the appointed orthopedic consultant to the Secretary son of Fred H. Leadbetter, Guy of War, and secretary to the Orthopedic Commit- Leadbetter enjoyed the advantages of the whole- tee of the National Research Council. He entered He was an accomplished pianist and had a ﬁne Bowdoin College and was graduated with an AB and well-trained baritone voice. In his senior year he was captain and was proﬁcient in German, Spanish, and of the track team, captain of the football team, French. Among his other hobbies were astron- established the intercollegiate record for the 16- omy, geology, entomology, scientiﬁc photogra- pound hammer, which stood for many years, and phy, anthropology, and archaeology. He was many lectures on these subjects and compiled an president of his class and was elected to the Phi illustrated lecture on “Mayan Ruins at Yucatan. These achievements while at For several years he was the guest lecturer on the college show the great physical, mental, and outdoor program of the National Capital Parks personal qualiﬁcations of the man. He retained and spoke on a wide variety of subjects, such as his interest in his Alma Mater and was a member “Death Valley Days,” “Bird Life” and “With the of the Bowdoin Alumni Council and Chairman Lumber Jacks in the Maine Woods. While a student, Leadbetter, President-Elect of the American he chose to become an orthopedic surgeon and Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, died in the received his surgical training at the Lakeside Emergency Hospital, Washington, DC of coro- 188 Who’s Who in Orthopedics nary occlusion. He had been conﬁned to the hos- Hospital in Boston, which he served for a period pital only a few days and died, as he had lived, of 39 years, ﬁrst as a house ofﬁcer and then as a without fear, advising his friends that he had no surgeon and a teacher. He was the representative of who should have lived to be a centenarian and not the Harvard Infantile Paralysis Commission at the have passed at the age of 51, when his many ster- Children’s Hospital, and his judgment in regard ling qualities were being recognized and a future to operative procedure in infantile paralysis was still lay before him. He had charge of the infantile para- married Alice Charlotte Johnson, and he was lysis cases at the Lakeville State Sanatorium, survived by her and their two children, Guy Middleboro, Massachusetts, and was consultant Whitman, Jr. Legg was chairman of the section on orthopedic surgery of the American Medical Association and, in 1933, he was vice president of the American Orthopedic Association.
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